1-2-3 Come Practice Place Value With Me
Today I'm featuring two quick, easy and interesting ways to practice math skills and standards.
The first is a super-fun way for your students to practice place value.
It's perfect for November, as I use a Pilgrim hat for the place value mat.
The game is also a quick & easy way to whole-group assess.
Make a few Pilgrim hats for an independent math center, or make a class set, so that you can practice together.
If you're short on time, send the hats home with a parent volunteer to assemble, then laminate & trim, so that you can use every year.
Here's how to play:
* Students take turns calling out a number.
* Children count out the appropriate amount of number tiles and place them in the corresponding place value columns on the Pilgrim hat, raising their hand when they are done.
* You can see at a glance who is having difficulty.
* Jot yourself a note, so that you can work with struggling kiddos later.
Click on the link to zip on over to my TpT shop to have a look: Place Value Pilgrim Hat packet.
The other math activity is "Turkey Battle". I designed it after the ever-popular game of Battleship.
It's played in a similar way, and practices strategy, skip counting by 2s, 5s and 10s, as well as addition, ordered pairs, data collection & analysis.
However, the game can be simplified for PK kiddos as well, so they can practice all those life skills involved in playing a game.
The packet includes everything you need to play the game, with large, as well as small "battle boards" & pieces.
Make several games for a partnered math center, or a class set, so that everyone can play.
There are several ways to win the game. Children decide which rules they want to follow, then the teacher sets a timer for 5-10 minutes.
Click on the link to zip on over to my TpT shop to take a look: Turkey Battle.
Today's FREEBIE is a sweet, turkey craftivity made from a family's hand prints. I
t's sure to become a cherished keepsake. Click on the link to grab your copy: Turkey Prints
Well that's it for today. I hope you and your little turkeys enjoy these activities.
It's chilly this morning, so time to toss another log on the fire.
Hopefully the colder weather has set the sandhill cranes in motion.
We're going to the bird sanctuary to see literally 1,000s make a stop over, as they migrate south. Wishing you a memory-making day.
"Faith is the bird that feels the light when the dawn is still dark." - Rabindranath Tagore
1-2-3 Come Do Some Fall-Themed Math Activities With Me
Oh my goodness this packet took a lot of time to put together! I hope you find it super-helpful and time saving, as it's chock full of quick, easy and fun math activities, that cover a variety of Common Core standards.
They are very versatile, so you can differentiate, making the lesson easier or more difficult, to fit your needs and grade level. (PK-1st).
Use them throughout the month for early finishers, extra help for strugglers, brain breaks, centers, review, table top lessons, assessments, homework, ESL help, or "just for fun” plug-ins when you have a few spare minutes. Tuck a few in your sub folder too.
Pick and choose what's appropriate and put together a Happy Thanksgiving packet to send home over break.
There are worksheets, several craftivities, puzzles, as well as dice, spinner & paper-pencil games, for the following:
* Ordinal numbers
* Telling digital & analog time to the hour & half hour
* Counting to 100 and 120
* 100 chart activities and games
* Skip counting by 2's, 3's, 5's, and 10's
* Sorting odd and even numbers
* "What's Missing?" worksheets
* "I Spy a Number" worksheet-games, for numbers 0-10 and 10-20, with a blank worksheet to program with higher numbers.
Perfect for whole-group assessing.
* Fact families
* Number words
* Coin counting
* 2D Shapes
* 10 frame activities
* Place Value
* Fill in the missing ad ends
* Addition worksheets and games
* Subtraction worksheets and games
* Tally marks
* Greater than, less than, and equal to
* +1 more worksheets
* +10 more worksheets
* "Dots and Boxes" game
* Listening & Following Directions
Wow! That's just about a little bit of most everything!
Click on the link to zip on over to my TpT shop to have a look see at this whopping 177-page, November Math Packet for PK-1st.
The featured FREEBIE today, also has a Thanksgiving theme.
It's an educational placemat that you can use for your Thanksgiving feast, or if you don't do one at school, use it on that last crazy day before break.
Well that's it for today. Thanks for stopping by.
I'm anxious to get some smaller Thanksgiving packets completed, before I run out of November! Wishing you a relaxing day.
"If months were marked by colors, November in New England, would be colored gray." - Madeleine M. Kunin
1-2-3 Come Do Some Fun Wind-Themed Activities With Me
Incorporating a variety of genre is one of our standards. It's difficult to cover separate units for all that's required, so I offer a variety of genres within each of my monthly-themed units.
I love poetry, particularly poems that rhyme, but finding age-level appropriate ones that match a theme, is not an easy task.
Since March is a very windy month here in the Midwest, I have a brief, wind-themed mini unit, that I toss in on the tail end of our kite unit. (No pun intended!)
With that in mind, I designed the Wind Tricks poetry packet to go along with my other wind-themed activities. I hope you find it helpful.
I came across this poem years ago, and even with the help of massive search engines, I still have not discovered the author.
I chose this poem because it's short, simple, incorporates rhyme and more than half the words that are in the poem, also appear on the Dolch word lists.
The packet includes:
An anchor-chart Wind Tricks poster-poem. Hang it up and read it to your class, then read as a whole group.
Six large (full-color) pocket chart cards, featuring each stanza. Use these for a whole group activity as well.
Using dry erase markers, call on children to correct beginning capitalization and add end punctuation.
I've also included a small set of matching pocket chart cards which fit on one page.
So that students can read and correct their own poem, I made a black and white "emergent reader" set of cards, which they can color, trim and collate into a booklet.
The packet also has 2 sizes of 34-mini word cards, using the words from the poem. (18 are Dolch Words.)
One of the ways you can use them is with the Mr. Windy envelope.
Pass the mini word cards out to students and then have them "feed" the Mr. Windy "Blow some words my way" envelope or use them to play the Windy Words game.
The Windy Words game is a bit goofy, but I'll try just about anything to get my kiddos excited about reading and writing.
No matter what grade I taught, from PK through college, my students always enjoyed my silly, but educational games.
Children make their own "Windy" by poking a straw through Mr. Windy's mouth. I used a red strip of paper and taped it to the table.
Adjust the game to suit the age of your students. Toss the word cards on the table, or leave them in a pile.
Who can blow the most words across the line? Can they read all of the words that they blew over the line? Have them choose 3-5 words and use them to make up sentences.
As a math extension, have each student count and then record on the “Tally Ho” sheet, how many words they blew across the line.
Use tally marks then add up a grand total of how many words the entire class blew over the line. (Recording data, using tally marks, as well as skip counting by 5s are all practiced.)
There are other uses for the cards too. Put them in alphabetical order; sort them by long and short vowels; or sort them by parts of speech.
If you have the time, and don't mind a messy, but awesome craftivity, reuse the Windy Word straws to make a "Windblown" Hair-Raising Portrait.
I found this adorable picture on Pinterest, with a broken link, but it's exactly what I had in mind. For easy clean up, lay newspaper on your worktable and use a cardboard box as a "security wall" to catch splatters.
Students can draw their own face on a sheet of white construction paper, or run off my template. Children add facial features and color their "head".
To make a "bad hair day doo" arrange a rainbow of colored plops of paint around the top of the head. (I use watered-down acrylics, because they are inexpensive, washable, and fast drying.)
Children use their straw to gently blow the paint in an upward direction to make "strands" of "hair".
Set aside to dry and later have children mount their creation on the top of the writing prompt: "I'm having a bad hair day when..." or something to do with wind or the Wind Tricks poem. They could also write the poem on the back or whatever words you want them to work on.
Anna, over at the Imagination Tree did some cool abstract straw blown paintings with her girls. For more "straw art" click on the link for a very pinteresting board I discovered while doing research.
Since this is a rhyming poem, I also included some Rhyme Time activities for the words in the poem that rhyme with day, street, and dance, which include anchor-chart posters, featuring the alphabetical lists of the words that I thought of.
This is a great way to build vocabulary, and fits in nicely with your Daily 5 word work activities.
Finally, I included a "What is Genre?" explanation, with an emphasis on explaining the poetry genre. (Nice for giving your students some background.)
Click on the link to view/download the Wind Tricks poetry packet and let the fun begin. To see all of my wind-themed FREEBIES click on the link to pop over to that section of TeachWithMe.
For more educational "pinspiration", free ideas, activities and crafts on my Pinterest boards, click on the link. I have one specifically for Windy March.
Thanks for visiting. Time to run. My 2-year-old grandson is coming to Nana's to play this morning. I think baking some cookies is in order.
Although he loves drinking with a straw and blowing bubbles, and truly enjoys craftivities with me, I'm not quite ready for a "mess-terpiece" today. Wishing you a delicious day filled with giggles.
"I can't change the direction of the wind, but I can adjust my sails to always reach my destination." -Jimmy Dean
1-2-3 Come Do Some Common Core Kite-Themed Activities With Me
A mini kite theme, was one of the many units I included in our March activities.
I thought other teachers might like to toss in a few kite-themed lessons, during this windy month as well, so I designed "Can Do Common Core Kites." The packet includes 14 different worksheets.
There are full-page patterns, so you can easily demonstrate what you want your kiddos to do, by making a sample.
To conserve paper, I've also included 2-on-a-page templates.
Pick and choose what's appropriate for your students.
If you're studying all of these standards, to save time, run off all of the double-page worksheets, trim on a paper cutter and collate into a mini Flying High With Common Core workbook. Use the "I Spy" a letter worksheet as your cover.
I Spy games are a quick, easy and fun way to whole group assess. Simply call out a letter. Children find and circle it then raise their hand. You can see at a glance who is having difficulty.
Once done with the game, assign however many worksheets you want your students to do that day. I used this type of activity for my morning "table top" routine.
Here are what the worksheets practice:
Click on the link to view/download the Can Do Common Core Kite Worksheets.
Thanks for visiting. I caught the flu bug last week, and if you've been there, you know how difficult it is to shake. It feels good to finally be among the "living" so it's time for some fresh air.
Since spring is "officially" here, it would be nice if Mother Nature got the message and the temp would get above 40. I'm so in need of some soothing sunshine. (Anybody relate?) Wishing you a healthy and happy day.
"No winter lasts forever; no spring skips its turn." -Hal Borland
1-2-3 Come Do "Sum" Seuss Math Activities With Me
I'm sure most of us use Dr. Seuss for lots of reading and writing activities, but you can also toss in some math as well. Here's how...
"I see, he sees, we see, she sees, they see, everyone sees the number ___________." Says the Cat in the Hat. Try saying that tongue-twisting, pronoun-filled sentence fast! It's an interesting way to introduce this quick, easy and fun Seuss-hat worksheet, which covers a variety of math standards.
Teachers can choose a number, give students a choice or make it a game, and have children roll dice to figure out what number they will use to fill out their worksheet. To create higher numbers for older students, add more dice.
You can also toss the Cat in the Hat number cards into a Seuss hat or other container, and have children pick one. (The numbers go from 0-120!)
Interest remains high, even though you can use the worksheet for an entire week or all of March, because the number changes daily.
Students look forward to working on their Cat Hat Math Mat, because they know what to do, which empowers them.
They can get right down to business, without waiting for directions, which is a real time saver for teachers too.
I've provided a large template to use to explain and demonstrate what you want your kiddos to do, as well as a large completed sample that you can laminate & hang up as an anchor chart poster, to help remind young children of the directions.
For students, there's a smaller version, with two-on-a-page, to conserve paper.
The beauty of this worksheet, is that you can use it for any number. Younger students can work on numbers less than 10, older students can work with two and three-digit numbers. The worksheet is also an easy way to whole-group assess.
Laminate several templates and set them up as an independent math center. Students use dry erase markers to fill in the number of the day.
The Cat Hat Math Mat packet also includes a helpful Cat in the Hat bookmark with math symbols.
I've also designed another Cat's hat math worksheet for younger children. Here, students trace and write the numbers and number words.
They X-off that many boxes in the 10 frame, count and color the correct amount of dots in the group/set, circle the number in the sequence, then tally that many marks.
For more practice, have students write one or two sentences on the back of their worksheet, using that number.
The packet includes a completed hat to help explain things, then hang up as an anchor chart, so kiddos can refer to it. Click on the link for the Cat in the Hat Number Sense packet.
To see this past-week's Seuss-themed blog articles, simply scroll down. If you'd like to take a look at all of the Dr. Seuss FREEBIES on my site, click on the link to pop on over to that section. I also have an entire board of Seuss ideas, and free activities on my Pinterest board.
Thanks for visiting. I can't believe it's March 1st today! Did the new month sort of sneak up on you too?
Even though I'm happy to see the record-breaking-cold February gone, I still have lots of Seuss-themed activities on my "To Do" list.
Hopefully, there are other teachers and homeschoolers that celebrate Seuss for the entire month, or at least a week, as I'll be posting a few more goodies!
"Don't give up. I believe in you all. A person's a person no matter how small!" -Dr. Seuss from Horton Hears A Who
1-2-3, Come Play A Quick, Easy and Fun Turkey-Math Game, With Me!
As a child, I enjoyed playing the game Battleship. This pencil-paper game, has been played in various forms since the 1930’s. In 1967, Milton Bradley made the first plastic pegboard version, which is my personal favorite.
When Online games became popular, visitors were able to play against the computer, with no need for an opponent. If you're looking for a kid-friendly game site that makes a nice independent computer center, Primary Games does a nice job and has a Battleship option.
Since all sorts of math skills are practiced while playing the Battleship game, I decided to adapt the concept for the classroom, and designed Turkey Battle.
This quick, easy and fun Thanksgiving turkey game, will help students practice strategy, coordinated pairs, skip counting by 2s, 5s and 10s, as well as addition and tally marks.
However, younger children can also play the game, by simply capturing turkeys. They'll be practicing the life skills needed to play games, as well as simple counting, number recognition from 1-5, plus uppercase letter recognition from A-E.
Students choose a Pilgrim opponent. Their mission is to capture all of their rival’s turkeys before they capture all of theirs.
So there's no peeking, use file folders as a privacy screen. (I've included a cover for these, if you want to decorate them.) Hidden behind the screen, Pilgrims position the turkeys on their “battle board”. There are two different sizes to choose from.
Older students record their hits via tally marks then add up the point values of each hit via skip counting by 2s, 5s and 10s. A point poster is provided, that you can hang up to assist in this.
If you want to give the game an extra twist and make it a bit more exciting, students can use the "Kaboom!" bomb cards. This gives kiddos another way to win. Here’s how: Students get 3 bomb tiles to scatter on their battle board. If their Pilgrim opponent sets off all three land mines, then they have lost the game.
The turkey battle board consists of 25 boxes on a grid. There are 15 turkey tiles for students to place on their battle board. There are 5 turkey tiles for each of the following point values: 2, 5 and 10 points.
Children decide how to win the game. Set a timer for 5-10 minutes; the Pilgrim who captures the most number of turkeys is the winner or the Pilgrim with the highest point value when the timer rings, is the winner.
To play, students alternate turns and get only one guess to capture a turkey. The first Pilgrim calls out an ordered pair (i.e. A5) and his Pilgrim opponent informs them if they have captured a turkey, and if so, its point value.
Pilgrims mark an X on their recording sheet of where they have guessed and make a tally mark on their paper in the appropriate point value place when a turkey is captured.
So that children know when all of their turkeys have been captured, the captured turkey tile is removed from their battle board. Have students put the captured turkey tiles back in their Snack Baggie as they play, so they won't lose them.
The game is done, when the timer rings. I’ve included certificates of praise that you can pass out. (There are ones in color as well as black line.) I find these mini certificates are a simple, yet effective way, to build self-esteem and good sportsmanship.
Click on the link to view/download the Turkey Battle November Math Game. Thanks for visiting today. My daughter Kelli, had baby Kaitlyn Monday night, so I'm off to do some super-fun "tickled pink" shopping. Wishing you a blessed day.
"We may all have come on different ships, but we're in the same boat now." -Martin Luther King Jr.
1-2-3 come Enjoy Winter Wonderland With Me!
Oh my! It's really snowing hard, and the winter wonderland swirling outside my office window is spectacular! We are supposed to get 17 inches! Woo hoo! As long as it's winter it might as well snow. There's always the added excitement of a snow day right? So bring it on!
Making templates for my daily tabletop lessons, was a real time saver for me. The repetition empowered my Y5's, as they were familiar with the format and could get right down to business, without wasting time with a lot of directions. To keep things fresh and interesting, I simply changed the clip art.
With this in mind, I designed monthly Fun With Number Worksheets. They review a variey of standards in an interesting way. I used a graphic organizer-format, that's especially beneficial for visual learners. The different clip art (snowmen, snowflakes, mittens, Martin Luther King, penguins, New Years etc.) added variety.
Print, laminate and trim the number cards 1-120. Toss them into a basket. Have a child choose one, as the number students will use to fill in their worksheet with. When kiddo's are done, they can exchange their paper with another child to correct. (Saves you time, and provides extra practice for your kiddo's.)
You can also use these for your sub folder, homework practice, something for early finishers, or assessments. Click on the link to view/download the January Number Fun Packet. If you'd like the Big Bundle number fun packet (105 pages!) that includes all of the months, click on the link.
If you're working on +1 simple addition with your little ones, I think you'll enjoy the snowy +1 Snowman booklet.
Students trace and write the numbers, circle the number in the sequence, add +1 to arrive at a new number and then cut and glue X number of snowflakes around the snowman.
I've also included a graphing extension. Click on the link to grab it. +1 Snowman Addition booklet.
Finally, help review analog and digital time (to the hour and half hour) with the Time For Snow snowman clock matching game. Print the snowman template on white construction paper; laminate and trim. Run off the hatband-time words, the digital time-rectangles and the analog clocks; laminate and trim.
Students choose a time and then match all of the pieces and parts to complete that snowman. Make an extra set and glue together for a "Time For Winter" bulletin board.
Run off the analog clock and digital time box templates, on glossy photo paper. Children trim and glue to their snowman, to make a dry erase digital and analog clock.
Teacher calls out a time and students draw hands on the clock and write in the digital time in the box, using a dry erase marker.
Children hold up their snowman when they are done. This is a quick, easy and fun way to whole-group assess. Students erase that answer and the teacher calls out another time.
Play continues 'til you have reviewed all of the times to the hour or half hour. Click on the link to view/download the Time For Snow matching game.
Thanks for visiting today. I'm off to unbury my snow shovel. Wishing you a warm and snuggly day.
"Snow provokes responses that reach right back to childhood." -Andy Goldsworthy
1-2-3 Make A Graphic Organizer With Me!
I LOVE graphic organizers. They are especially helpful for my visual learners. I took this concept and made it work for a number worksheet. It's quick and easy to implement and can be part of your daily or weekly table top lessons, or plugged into your math center.
If you need "stuff" for your early finishers to work on, or some activities for your sub folder, these are perfect. Many teachers have asked for simple homework lessons, because their districts require homework!
These make that task less work for you, and more fun for your students. As you can see in the sample, a lot of Common Core math is covered in a fun way.
I've used the same template and changed the clip art, so you have a variety of worksheets for each month and LOTS of themes. This packet is a whopping 94-pages!
Pick and choose what suits your kiddo's. By repeating the format, students feel empowered and can get right down to business. Because they know what to do, they can work independently, you're not wasting time explaining directions, and are freed up to work one-on-one with strugglers. Things stay interesting and fresh, because of the seasonal clip art and the new number that they choose.
Students roll one or two dice to arrive at their number for the worksheet, or you can have children choose a number card from a seasonal container. (I've made cards for numbers from 1-120.)
You may want to make extra sets for students to sequence and play games with. I've included a blank grid children can write numbers in, or laminate some grids and have students place tiles on them.
I was bopping around the internet and found a little dice INSIDE a larger dice! How cool is that! Less noise and less likely to have one flying on the floor. I think your kiddo's will think they are especially cool too!
I Googled where you can buy them and found several places. You can get a pack of 8 for only $2.28 from Pure Fun or $2.69 from On The Fly Supply.
Students write their number in the middle square and fill in the rest of their graphic organizer.
Children can write in the coin values, or/and you can have them cut and glue the appropriate coin tiles to their worksheet. (A coin template is included for a penny, nickel, dime and quarter.) Ask students to write down one way to arrive at the coin value, or several.
For the group/set section, children can make dots, X's or whatever, to show how many. For smaller numbers, students can use stickers or a seasonal stamp. Click on the link to view/download the Monthly Math Graphic Organizer packet.
While I was didling around designing this, I thought I'd include a separate mustache-themed packet, because "mustache mania" is still going strong.
This packet's number cards have a mustache on them. Click on the link to view/download the Mustache-Math Graphic Organizer packet.
Thanks for visiting today. I blog and design daily, so I hope you can drop by tomorrow too. Feel free to PIN anything from my site. To ensure that "pinners" return to THIS blog article, click on the green title at the top; it will turn black, now click on the "Pin it" button on the burgundy menu bar.
If you'd like to check out all of the awesome-educational items that I spend way too much time pinning, click on the big heart button to the right of the article.
"It is not what you do for your children, but what you have taught them to do for themselves, that will make them successful." -Ann Landers
1-2-3 Come Do A Whole Lot Of Math With Me!
It took me quite a few hours to design these math anchor charts, but it was well worth the effort as I think they turned out pretty spiffy. I hope you enjoy them.
Print and laminate. They make a terrific math bulletin board that you can refer to daily.
Laminate extra sets so that your students can cut them apart and make them into puzzles.
I’ve made a puzzle grid so students can use this as a template to place their pieces on.
They are great for games too. Two sets can be used to make a Memory Match game. Since there are 13 pieces to each poster, it would be a good idea to only have students Match 2 posters at a time.
Toss 2 cut up number posters into a container. Have each child take out a piece and play “I Have; Who Has?” A student with the #1 crayon can ask for any other piece to start building the puzzle on the floor or on the white board, if you decide to attach a magnet. Play continues ‘til however many puzzles you are working on, are completed.
Have students use the greater and less than symbols between the posters.
Review: fractions, colors, patterns, telling time, fact families, money, tally marks, ordinal numbers, number words, measurement with a ruler, +1 addition, sequencing numbers, counting groups and sets of objects, and using a ten frame for addition + these Common Core State Standards: K.CC.2, K.CC.4a, K.CC.4b, K.CC.4c, K.OA.1, K.OA.3, K.OA. 4, K.OA.5, K.CC.6, K.CC.7, 1.MD.3, 1.G.3, RF.K.3c
I’ve made a blank 10-frame for you to run off so that students can show you addition or subtraction answers, after you give them a variety of equations.
Call out a question and have students use the anchor charts to point to the answer and then explain it.
Give students 2 different colored bingo dot markers and have them complete the ABAB pattern that’s on the 10-frame.Using the bingo dot markers have students show you their answers to equations you put on the board.
Ask children to compare the coins and see if there are other combinations that I could have used to show that number.Can they think of anything else that they do/use at school that could be added to the chart to explain that number.
Make two sets of posters and play “Speed” Students choose a partner; mix up the cards and see who can put theirs in order first.
Explain the fractions and reinforce the vocabulary that goes with it. Call out a number and everyone begins counting from there. Sequence the cards backwards and “blast off.” Have students sort the pieces into their matching piles. i.e. students put all of the clocks in a pile and sequence them.
Wow! So much covered with a simple poster! Woo Hoo! Click on the link to view/download the Math Anchor Charts
Thanks for visiting today. I'm off to add some things to my pin boards. I know what I think will take a few minutes, will likely turn into an hour, as there is so much "pinspiration" out there and it's quite addicting. One pin leads to another, and then I hop over to that board, and all of a sudden the morning's gone! Anyone else out there on the same page? Have a good one.
"When you talk, you are only repeating what you already know, but if you listen, you have the chance to learn something new." - J.P. McEvoy
This Little Piggy Went To Market, and This Little Piggy Went To School For 100-Day!
What started out to be a few simple piggy bank worksheets, to help students count coins to 100, turned into a whopping 50-page 100-Day Piggy Packet.
You don't have to use it just for 100-Day, reviewing these "hog wild" counting skills, throughout the year, is important no matter what the day, and it's nice to have a variety of tricks in your bag of how to do that in an interesting way.
After all, counting to 100 can get quite boring for some little ones, and extremely frustrating for those kiddo's whose light bulbs haven't lit up yet. With that in mind, I designed the Q-tip mud craftivity to the right. Students dab brown paint on the 10 groups of 10 dots on the dirty piggy. For less mess, children could use a brown crayon to color in the dots.
This unique packet will help you with Common Core State Standards: K.CC.1, K.CC.3, K.CC.4a, K.CC.4b, K.CC.4c, K.CC.5, K.OA.1, K.CC.6, 1.NBT.1 The packet is chock full of all kinds of goodies to help you celebrate 100-Day, or simply use as math centers.
The packet includes:
Click on the link to view/download the 100-Day Piggy Packet.
I hope your students have as much fun doing the lessons, as I had creating them.
Thank you for visiting today. Feel free to PIN anything that you think others may find helpful.
"I do the very best I know how, the very best I can, and I mean to keep on doing so until the end." -Abraham Lincoln